In the picture
View of the port of Arica, in the north of Chile, on the border with Peru [Port Authority].
entrance Chile's northern ports have been the usual gateway for maritime goods to and from Bolivia, putting into practice the port and transit facilities provided for in the treaty that ratified the borders between the two countries a little more than a century ago. However, Bolivia is developing logistical alternatives that make it less dependent on Chilean ports. Thus, the volume of Bolivian cargo shipped in Chile has been reduced in recent years, from 74.4% of exported tonnes in 2018 to 64.4% in 2020. The increase in traffic through ports in southern Peru and the greater use of the Paraguay-Parana waterway, although totalling a small volume, widen the Bolivian margin for manoeuvre.
The latest period of political friction between Bolivia and Chile, following Bolivia's attempt to have the International Court of Justice in The Hague force its neighbours to sit down at a negotiating table to discuss their mutual borders, has had its consequences in the area of trade. In October 2018, the Court ruled that Bolivia's loss of access to the sea as a result of the War of the Pacific (1879-1884) is a closed issue and Chile cannot be forced into any cession. The diplomatic tension led to the Bolivian government's interest in promoting greater trade through Peruvian ports, which was also assisted by a rise in tariffs in the Chilean port of Arica, the main port of traffic for goods linked to Bolivia.
Although Chilean-Bolivian relations have returned to normal, the existence in Peru of a politically and sociologically like-minded government - the indigenism of the Andes unites Pedro Castillo and Luis Arce - has accentuated Bolivia's desire to further explore alternative routes, especially to the Peruvian port of Ilo. In addition, there is a public-private partnership between the government and the private sector to develop the docks that give access to the Paraguay-Paraná waterway, which reaches the Atlantic via the Río de la Plata.
In 2018, Bolivia exported a total of 5,140,467 tonnes of goods (excluding hydrocarbons transported by pipeline). Of this volume, the flow of Bolivian cargo through ports in Chile - first Arica and then Antofagasta, both in the north of the country - was 3,825,222 tonnes (74.4%), and 383.383,716 tonnes (7.4 per cent) was shipped to Peruvian ports - basically Ilo and Matarani, in southern Peru; the rest went to the Atlantic agreement according to figures compiled by the Bolivian authorities in the latest report of the Administration of Port Services-Bolivia (ASP-B).
In 2019, of total exports of 5,590,761 tonnes, 3,732,130 were transported through Chilean ports (66.7%) and 605,185 through Peruvian ports (10.8%). Between 2018 and 2019, the flow through Peruvian ports increased by 57.7%.
high school In 2020, due to the confinements of the Covid-19 pandemic, world trade traffic decreased and Bolivian exports dropped to 4.57 million tonnes: the decline affected transit through Chile the most, which fell to 2.9 million tonnes (63.4% of total exports), while that through Peru remained at 0.6 million (13.3%), according to the Bolivian Foreign Trade Agency (IBCE) on its bulletin transport and logistics website. IBCE bulletins show that almost all Bolivian exports are exported by sea, although the journey to shipment involves various means of transport.