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Gerardo Castillo Ceballos, Professor of the School of Education and Psychology of the University of Navarra
The intelligent study
Why study? To know more, to be an educated person, with new horizons, freer, with the possibility of making more decisions of my own, among them to be able to choose the degree program and the work that I like the most. To awaken and cultivate "dormant" talents, not to be manipulable and to help others more and better. There is a widespread "unintelligent" study among the students of high school diploma. Some symptoms: to study only when an exam is approaching; to study for approve, not to know; to retain contents not understood or "digested", in an uncritical way. These attitudes are the opposite of those required in subsequent university study, which requires reworking the contents with one's own criteria. On the other hand, they do predispose to those that I propose below. It implies moving from knowledge without thought to thought knowledge, which prevents studying from being a tedious activity. Intelligent" study is not reduced to the acquisition of knowledge. It is a work of the mind that relates what is new to what is already known, thus making learning meaningful. Study should be developed from agreement with the phases of refl exion: finding and defi nition of problems, search for answers; checking the validity of those answers. Harry Maddox formulated the well-known "Robinson method" (EPL2R) consisting of five phases: exploring, questioning, reading, reciting and reviewing. Personal questions and answers throughout each study session predispose to understanding and recall. It is also core topic to structure the content by means of a outline and/or a concept map. For A. Millán Puelles, "learning is not a pure receiving, but a real activity. The increase of knowledge requires that the ignored truths become not only known, but also known".