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Approach multidisciplinary in ADHD


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Newspaper News

Sara Magallón

School of Education and Psychology of the University of Navarra

It is estimated that in Spain, in each classroom of Education Primary and Secondary, two students present difficulties in the area of learning or development. The most common disorders are the specific learning disorder in reading, known as dyslexia, whose prevalence is estimated at between 5% and 17% of the child population, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which affects around 5%-12% of schoolchildren.

The association of pathologies is very frequent: it is estimated that between 25% and 50% of people with ADHD have learning disorders. And around 15-35% of people with learning disorders also have ADHD.

It is important to remember, on the occasion of the National Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Day, which is celebrated every October 27, that early identification of neurodevelopmental problems is crucial and why its approach must be multidisciplinary, so that in all areas in which schoolchildren participate, appropriate support measures are takenPeople with ADHD have difficulty concentrating on the activities they perform, especially in those they do not consider interesting. In addition, they may show hyperactivity; in these cases, they are prone to need continuous movement and have problems inhibiting both cognitive and behavioral behaviors, which often leads to impulsivity. These symptoms can greatly affect the academic, occupational, social and emotional development , so their psychoeducational, and sometimes also pharmacological, treatment is essential. It is important to mention that the subject and Degree of the affectation and, therefore, the symptomatology can be variable; although people with ADHD usually show certain common characteristics.

ADHD is a developmental disorder, so symptoms vary with age. Some problems in adulthood associated with ADHD are difficulty with concentration, organization and self-discipline, depression, leave self-esteem, inner restlessness, leave frustration tolerance and difficulty with time management. ADHD is also related to obesity, since impulsivity and dysregulation can increase difficulties in controlling their food intake. Likewise, they sometimes achieve academic and work performance below their real capabilities and have greater conflicts in their family life due to difficulties in managing their impulses. It is also associated with a higher rate of traffic accidents, problems with the law and a tendency to substance abuse.

While research indicates that the presence of ADHD increases the risk of the behaviors mentioned above, it should be emphasized that the symptoms and behavioral patron saint may differ markedly from person to person, depending on many variables. The programs of study also indicates that there are numerous protective factors that can influence the outcome of affected individuals to be very positive; intellectual ability, positive parenting styles (combining affection with the establishment of clear rules and routines, frustration tolerance training, etc.), adequate schooling (access to accommodations, among others), safe environments, leave exhibition to screens/exciting stimuli and promotion of quiet activities such as story reading, early detection/early diagnosis, the presence of psychoeducational intervention (and in required cases pharmacological) and its adherence, as well as the cultivation of healthy habits, are some of them. There is scientific evidence that in a high percentage of cases, both in children and adults, people with ADHD, especially those without other learning, neurodevelopmental and mental pathologies, and with high adherence to therapeutic interventions, have a high normofunctionality, that is, they enjoy a good quality of life and life satisfaction, even with a high cost of cognitive resources to compensate for the difficulties in the areas of inattention/hyperactivity-impulsivity.

One of the variables that explains to a greater extent the adjustment of people with ADHD in adulthood is the attention to their needs in childhood; for this reason it is essential the work multidisciplinary , always in partnership with the parents. It is vital that teachers, counselors, psychologists, pediatricians, neuropediatricians, child psychiatrists, etc. and parents always work in the same direction, and keeping in mind the unique characteristics of children (general abilities, personality, family context...). In the vast majority of cases, good practices in children have positive effects on the evolution and prognosis, both in adolescence and in adulthood.