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Global macronutrient quality associated with cardiovascular disease risk

The research has been published in the European Journal of Nutrition and is part of the work Fin de Master's Degree of Dr. Paola Vanegas, student of the Master's Degree European School of Food, Nutrition and Metabolism.

/Paola Vanegas

03 | 06 | 2022

Higher overall macronutrient quality is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. This is the conclusion of a research that has just been published in the European Journal of Nutrition, Q1 of area of Nutrition & Dietetics. The study, carried out by Dr. Paola Vanegas, is part of her work End of Master's Degree as a student of Master's Degree European Food, Nutrition and Metabolism of the School Pharmacy and Nutrition.

"The goal of my work, tutored by professors Susana Santiago and Itziar Zazpe, was to evaluate the association between a multidimensional global macronutrient quality index and the risk of cardiovascular disease within the SUN cohort (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra)," explains Vanegas. To do this, she conducted a prospective analysis in 18,418 Spanish adults who were followed for more than 14 years.

"The dietary index employee to measure the overall quality of macronutrients took into account, on the one hand, the quality of carbohydrates, assessed through fibre intake, the glycaemic index, the ratio of carbohydrates in whole grains/total grains and the ratio of solid carbohydrates/total carbohydrates," he says. "In addition, fat quality was assessed according to monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, trans and saturated fatty acids, and protein quality, classified as healthy and unhealthy sources.

The main finding found in this research was the inverse and consistentassociation between global macronutrient quality and cardiovascular disease incidence. "Participants with higher score on the global macronutrient index at the time of entrance in the cohort showed a 40% lower risk of suffering a cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) during follow-up than those with lower score on the global macronutrient index". In addition, it was concluded that better macronutrient quality and greater adherence to the per diem expenses Mediterranean or vegetarian diet is also associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

"The results of research allow me, as a medical graduate, to guide and give my patients simple dietary recommendations to help them prevent the onset of these related chronic diseases. This is especially relevant in Latin America, an area where they are one of the leading causes of death," says Vanegas. "In 2019, for example, 26.49% of all deaths were due to cardiovascular diseases."

→ link to the full publication.